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Al Ghazzali (1058 – 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Islam. He was of Persian origin. His works were so highly acclaimed by his contemporaries that Al Ghazzali was awarded the honorific title “Proof of Islam” (Hujjat al-Islam).
Al Ghazzali believed that the Islamic spiritual tradition had become moribund and that the spiritual sciences taught by the first generation of Muslims had been forgotten. That resulted in him writing his magnum opus entitled Ihya ‘ulum al-din (“The Revival of the Religious Sciences“). He also the author of The Alchemy of Happiness, a rewritten version of The Revival of the Religious Sciences. Among his other works, the Tahāfut al-Falāsifa (“Incoherence of the Philosophers”) is a significant landmark in the history of philosophy, as it advances the critique of Aristotelian science developed later in 14th-century Europe.